Sample Questions

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Sample Questions


1 A 35 years old woman presents with a swelling in the neck. The swelling has increased in size gradually over the last two years and the patient feels she has difficulty with breathing. Examination shows that the mass measures 8cm by 10 cm, soft and not warm to touch. It moves with deglutition.
Which of the following is the most appropriate management of this mass?

  1. Partial thyroidectomy
  2. Oral thyroxine
  3. Oral propylthiouracil
  4. Excision biopsy

2 A 46 years old labourer reports swelling in the right groin. The non-painful swelling is observable in both the erect and the recumbent positions. Examination reveals a non-tender irreducible 4 cm mass in the right groin below and on the medial side of the inguinal ligament.
Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis in this patient?

  1. Indirect inguinal hernia
  2. Femoral hernia
  3. Saphenous vein varicocoele
  4. Hydrocoele

3. A camel rider sustained a kick to the lateral side of his right leg just below the knee caused by the camel stick. The site is slightly bruised and tender to touch. During physical examination, he is unable to either dorsiflex or evert the foot. There is loss of sensation over the front and outer half of the leg and dorsum of the foot.
If these observations are the result of damage to a nerve bundle, which of the following is the most likely nerve affected?

  1. Lateral popliteal
  2. Peroneal
  3. Tibia
  4. Sural

4. A 46 year old woman presents with sudden episode of abdominal pain which started about 2 hours ago. The pain is located in the epigastrium and radiates to her back. She has vomited twice since the onset of attack. The pain is made worse by lying flat on her back and she is more comfortable sitting up and bending forwards. She was informed of the presence of gallstones in her gall bladder four weeks earlier when she reported pain in the right hypochondrium. The oral temperature is 39oC, the blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg and the radial pulse rate is 118/min. There is no jaundice but there is marked tenderness in the epigastrium both on deep and superficial palpations.
Which of the following is the most appropriate investigation for the cause of the patient’s pain?

  1. Plain abdominal X-ray
  2. Serum Amylase
  3. Serum bilirubin
  4. Barium Swallow

5. A 75-year-old Japanese woman reports repeated episodes of vomiting of undigested food mixed with blood. She has lost 5 kgs in weight over the last one month. Clinical examination shows a frail woman with mild conjuctival palor. On examination, you feel a non-tender slightly mobile mass in the epigastric region.
Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Colon cancer
  2. Gastric cancer
  3. Gall bladder cancer
  4. Oesophageal cancer

6. A 45 year old man, known to be chronically addicted to alcohol, presents in the Accident and Emergency Unit and reports two episodes of vomiting fresh bright red blood in the previous six hours. He estimated the volume blood vomited at each bout to be more than 500mls. On clinical examination, the radial pulse is 120/min, the blood pressure is 90/60 mm Hg. There is no mass or tenderness in the epigastrium. The liver is palpable for 3 cm below the costal margin and not tender. The patient is not jaundiced. The physician resuscitates the patient with oxygen by face mask, rapid infusion of intravenous normal saline while he requests for haemoglobin level and whole blood for transfusion.
Which of the following is next appropriate step in management?

  1. Barium Swallow
  2. Exploratory laparotomy
  3. CT scan of the abdomen
  4. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

7. A 42 year old woman reports to the surgeon that she is worried about a lump that she feels the right breast. The surgeon observes a 2 cm by 3 cm mass in the right lower quadrant of the breast. There are no associated skin changes and the mass has limited mobility. There is no discharge from the nipple. There is no axillary lymph node enlargement. Examination of the left breast and axilla was completely normal. A mammogram report suggests the presence of microcalcifications.
Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in the management of this patient?

  1. Observation for one year and repeat the mammography
  2. A needle-guided biopsy of the breast
  3. Excision biopsy of the breast
  4. Partial mastectomy

8. A 45 year old man presents with a mass on the right side of the face. The mass was first observed three months ago but has recently become visibly larger. He feels pain over the mass and is unable to blow a whistle. Clinical examination shows that the mass is likely to be the parotid gland. An oral examination shows a foul smelling discharge from the duct of the gland and gentle probing shows that it is stenosed at the meatus.
Which of the following features suggests that the mass might be malignant?

  1. Presence of pain
  2. Recent enlargement
  3. Facial nerve palsy
  4. Stenosed duct meatus

9. A 6 year old boy presents with jaundice following treatment with sulphathiazole. Investigations suggest that the jaundice is due to haemolysis caused by G6DP deficiency.
Which of the followings is true regarding etiology of G6DP deficiency?

  1. Inherited as autosomal dominant condition
  2. Inherited as sex-linked dominant condition
  3. Inherited as sex-linked recessive condition
  4. Results from auto-antibodies to red cell antigens

10. A 5-year-old previously healthy child has a 1-day history of severe pain in the throat, breathing difficulties and fever. On examination you find an anxious, septic-looking child with drooling of saliva and stridor.
Which one of the following is the most appropriate initial management?

  1. Intubation under general anaesthesia
  2. Insertion of nasogastric tube
  3. Fluid resuscitation and antibiotics IV
  4. Anteroposterior & lateral neck x-ray

11. A 6-year-old boy has been noticed to have problems with co-ordinating his voluntary movements over the last two years. He has a waddling gait and needs to support himself on his hands when rising from the floor. He has larger calves than other boys but he runs more slowly.
Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Myotonia
  2. Myasthenia gravis
  3. Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  4. Muscular atrophy

12. A previously healthy, 10-month-old female child presents to your clinic with a 1-day history of high fever, runny nose and conjunctivitis. The child looks unwell and is irritable. Examination of the child's oropharynx shows that it is inflammed and there are small white spots on the oral mucosa.
Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Kawasaki disease
  2. Parvovirus infection
  3. Herpes zoster
  4. Measles

13. A 3-day-old term, breast-fed infant is brought by the mother who reports that the child has not been active and not feeding well. She also notices jaundice, which was not present at birth and is increasing. On examination, the temperature is 35.4°C, and the liver is palpable 2 cm below the costal margin.
Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Rhesus isoimmunisation
  2. Inadequate breast milk
  3. Congenital biliary tract obstruction.
  4. Sepsis

14. A 65-year-old woman with diabetes, hypertension and normal kidney function underwent a total right hip replacement. She had massive haemorrhage during the operation and was given 8 units of packed RBC. The blood pressure dropped to 60/40 mm Hg for about two hours before it was corrected with blood transfusion. Two days after the surgery the serum creatinine level rose to 4.2 mg/dl (normal <1.5 mg/dl), BUN was 50 mg/dl (normal 10-20 mg/dl) and potassium 5.0 mmol/L (normal 3.5-5.0 mmol/l). There were brown granular casts in the urine sediment.
Which one of the following is the most likely cause of this complication?

  1. Diabetic nephropathy
  2. Malignant hypertension
  3. Acute tubular necrosis
  4. Interstitial nephritis

15. A 78-year-old patient is diagnosed with metastatic lung cancer; there is no cure for his condition. His son tells the physician that in the case of a diagnosis of cancer, the physician must not tell his father. He wishes that his father does not suffer any psychological distress caused by the knowledge of a terminal diagnosis.
Which one of the following ethical principles supports the son’s request?

  1. Patient autonomy
  2. Beneficence
  3. Justice
  4. Non-maleficence

16. A 23-years-old single male was brought to Emergency exhausted and frightened. His father tells you that his son, who was previously healthy, had, for no apparent reason, a sudden attack of fear, dizziness, sweating, palpitations and the feeling that his heart is going to stop beating. The symptoms started to decrease gradually after about 10 minutes.

Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Panic attack
  2. Delirious state
  3. Alcohol withdrawal phenomena
  4. Social phobia

17. A 30-year-old woman, G2P1, at 37 weeks gestation mentions that her 3-year-old son has just developed chickenpox. She is not certain whether she has had the disease herself.
Which one of the following is the next step in management?

  1. Administration of varicella-zoster immune globulin IM
  2. Measurement of varicella IgM level
  3. Acyclovir tablets orally
  4. Measurement of varicella IgG level

18. A 24-year-old primigravida presents to accident and emergency with a history of 8-week amenorrhoea followed by heavy vaginal bleeding and severe, crampy abdominal pain. On examination, her heart rate is 110/min and blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. The uterus is bulky. The cervix is dilated and there is active bleeding from the cervical os, but no tissue has been expelled.
Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Inevitable abortion
  2. Threatened Abortion
  3. Incomplete abortion
  4. Missed Abortion

19. A 46-year-old woman comes for a routine gynaecological visit. On pelvic examination, a 1-cm red, granular lesion is noted on the posterior cervical lip, which is firm and bleeds on contact.
Which one of the following is the next best step for establishing a diagnosis?

  1. Cervical cytological smear
  2. Punch biopsy
  3. Transvaginal ultrasound
  4. Colposcopy

20. A 31-year-old woman, G5P4, who has amenorrhoea for 12 weeks and a positive pregnancy test presents to Emergency with vaginal bleeding. Symphysial-fundal height measurement corresponds to 22 weeks gestation. Ultrasound examination reveals bilateral cystic masses. No fetal parts are seen during the examination. The cervix is closed.
Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Tubal pregnancy
  2. Endometriosis
  3. Hydatidiform mole
  4. Threatened abortion

21. A married 25 year old woman presents with 6 hour history of abdominal pain located in the left iliac fossa. The pain is persistent, of increasing intensity and not radiating first experienced while she was lying down. She feels giddy when she tries to stand erect. The last menstrual period was 6 weeks ago. The radial pulse is 130/min and the blood pressure is 80/40 mm Hg. Pelvic ultrasound examination shows free intra-peritoneal fluid.
What is the most appropriate next step in management?

  1. Immediate laparoscopy.
  2. Immediate laparotomy.
  3. Pregnancy test (urine or serum).
Observation for 24 hours in the ICU


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